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Targeted offer – philosophizing about friendships

Dialogic lectures and picture book analysis.

In this article you will receive a detailed plan of a targeted offer in the daycare center with the topic of philosophizing about friendships using dialogic lecture. The child theme is friendships. Learn more about the Kamishibai or the picture book analysis of the story Emma – without you the world would only be half as beautiful.

To complete this planning, the first section (analysis) with the description of the child is still missing. Here you have to provide information about the child and describe the corresponding development areas (emotional-social, fine and gross motor skills, cognitive and the linguistic area). The description of the child’s interests and topic complete the analysis of a specific offer. This is followed by the Goals section. I wish you happy reading.


Designation of the fields of education and development

During the targeted offer, the fields of education and developmentmeaning, values and religion ”, thinking , “ feeling and compassion ” and language are touched upon. Due to the planned type of offer (philosophizing and friendship), however, the areas of “meaning, values and religion” and “thinking” are mainly addressed.

These educational and development areas of the Baden-Württemberg Orientation Plan are derived from the educational areas of language & communication (“to communicate in conversations and to express your feelings, opinions, thoughts, experiences, etc.”) as well as social, cultural and intercultural education (“in social To enter interaction processes and to experience opinions and ideas of other people ”).

The education and development field of meaning, values and religion is promoted by philosophizing together in the group. The children receive impulses in order to be able to philosophize about possible developments in the story. Through this, the children discover that there are no definitive answers to some questions and that the other children have different ideas about how the story should proceed. The topic of the child (friendship) is also discussed on a philosophical level and questions or impulses are set accordingly. This area can be found in the orientation plan under the goal: “Ability to find understanding partners in your philosophizing and / or theologizing about life and the world.” (Baden-Württemberg, 2016, p. 167)

In the educational and developmental area of thinking , the children expand their knowledge through the targeted offer. There is also a strong cognitive challenge as the children have to think about the progress of the story and think about friendship. In the educational and developmental field of thinking, there is also the goal that children enjoy thinking together. In this field of development, too, reference is made to philosophizing, among other things through the goal: “Ask yourself and your environment questions, also of a philosophical and religious nature, and look for answers. (cf. Baden-Württemberg, 2016, p. 148)

Rough targets

  1. The children deal creatively with the images of the medium (Kamishibai cards).
  2. The children expand their knowledge of friendship.
  3. The children get to know other children as understanding partners.

Fine targets

  1. The children express their ideas for the continuation of the story.
  2. The children compare their ideas about the further story.
  3. The children explain what friends are to them.
  4. The children compare Emma’s friendships with their own.
  5. The children practice creative thinking


Justification of the offer

Due to K.’s interests and topic, I consider the planned offer to be expedient. K. has a strong imagination and is interested in adventure. The story of Emma, who explores the world, experiences adventures in nature and meets new animals, is suitable here. Based on the observations, K. is more often in conflict with other children and it is difficult for her to find a common consensus on activities in free play.

She said for a long time that she had no friends and that nobody wanted to play with her. Here I see friendships as a childlike theme of K. The story Emma is also suitable for this, as she learns that the other animals are her friends and that everyone can achieve a goal together.

At the moment, K. is not particularly keen on looking at books. She finds it boring and therefore quickly returns to other things. By using the Kamishibai, a different atmosphere can be created so that K. can be reached in a different way compared to using a picture book. As a result, K. can achieve the planned goals with a higher probability.

The common philosophizing in the group should take up the topic of the child and carry it into the group. Questions like “Is that right?” “Why?” Or “Could it be different?” Should get the children to think and philosophize.

The objectives of the offer are conveyed through two levels, which the adjacent graphic clearly shows.

So far, I have not had any personal experience with the planned offer in the form of philosophizing together. I am familiar with the use of the Kamishibai from an offer I had in my previous practice in the day nursery.

Selection of the group

Reason for the group constellation

The group was put together because of the overlapping interests. Care was also taken to ensure that the characters in the group are heterogeneous. The children do not have any conflicts with K. in everyday daycare (free play), so that “everyday conflicts” can be avoided in the targeted offer. This can also create new connections between K. and the other children, which may lead to new play partners in the medium term.

When selecting the group, attention was also paid to a homogeneous level of cognitive development of the children, so that excessive demands or boredom of individual children and a possible disruption of the offer is prevented in advance.

Factual analysis

Philosophizing with kindergarten children

Philosophizing with children in kindergarten is an exciting area. Because children have a lot of imagination and creativity. Children also think and argue differently in comparison to us adults. In this way, new perspectives and ways of thinking on a specific topic can be quickly recognized when an offer is made. Furthermore, the Baden-Württemberg orientation plan for education and upbringing clearly instructs institutions to also deal with the topic of philosophizing with children. This is recorded in Education and Development Area 6: Meaning, Values and Religion . The goal is clearly formulated here: “Children can find understanding partners in their philosophizing and / or theologizing about life and the world and experience different ways of asking for meaning and living values and communicating about them.” (Cf. Baden-Württemberg , 2016, pp. 165–168)

Nevertheless, one must briefly touch on the subject of children’s philosophy. Because there are definitely arguments for and against philosophizing with children in the professional world. These are now explained and presented in more detail in order to obtain an up-to-date overview of the scientific discussion and development in this area. From this, an approach for the planned offer can ultimately be derived.

Arguments for Philosophizing

Probably the most important argument for philosophizing with children is the requirement of the state of Baden-Württemberg. Because the orientation plan was according to § 9 Abs. 2 of the KitaG and serves the funding mandate according to §22 SGB VIII. Nonetheless, it is the responsibility of the provider to determine how the goals are achieved. There is therefore a great deal of leeway for the institution as to how the topic of philosophizing with children is approached (cf. Baden-Württemberg, 2016, p. 98).

Philosophizing with children can only have the character of an offer and must be carried out in a suitable atmosphere without pressure. The type of philosophizing also depends on the level of development of the respective children. For the children it is important to have a person with whom the children feel comfortable and with whom they can think and exchange ideas together. Children have a right to have their philosophical questions answered. In this way, the areas of imagination, creativity, knowledge, values, language, thinking and the argumentation of children can be promoted (cf. Huppertz & Barleben, 2016, pp. 7–23). Huppertz and Barleben put it this way: “Childhood today calls for philosophizing” (Huppertz & Barleben, 2016, p. 17).

Richard. F. Kitchener is of the opinion that children under the age of 10 also philosophize, albeit in a rather simple way. Rather, one has to see this as a kind of preliminary phase of the actual later philosophizing. In contrast to later, abstract philosophizing, a simple, concrete philosophizing takes place in this phase (see Heinrich, Berner-Zumpf & Teichert, 2020, p. 74).

Arguments against philosophizing

Piaget has conducted research on children’s thinking and its results lead to the conclusion that children cannot philosophize because children cannot analyze, systematize or define. Children have no separation between the different levels (self <> world) and they are not aware of their subjectivity. Philosophizing with children thus attacks both scientific philosophy and the child himself (cf. Heinrich et al., 2020, pp. 110–111). Because by classifying children as scientists and philosophers we risk, on the one hand, to undermine independent free play and to claim the children’s developmental phases with the risk of making too high demands on the children.

There are therefore good reasons to be skeptical when children are labeled or encouraged in this regard (cf. Heinrich et al., 2020, pp. 86–88). Richard F. Kitchener also defended Piaget’s statements in an essay in 1989, which Matthew Lipmann and Gareth B. Matthews contrasted and challenged with a different point of view on the subject mentioned (see Heinrich et al., 2020, p. 13).

Personal conclusion on the subject of children’s philosophy

From my point of view, the philosophy of children makes an important contribution to promoting early childhood and should not be neglected. The question of whether children can really philosophize is scientifically controversial. For me, however, this is not the core element of the children’s philosophy. Because it should be undisputed that children ask and have their own trains of thought. Therefore, I see the area of children’s philosophy as a very broad spectrum, which has extremes in both directions, which should be avoided. Furthermore, I see philosophizing with an adult as a necessary prerequisite, because depending on the topic and the child’s experience, a complex of topics can very quickly give rise to fears and insecurity in the child. Philosophizing should therefore be guided by an adult.

Ultimately, it is not about teaching the children to philosophize, but rather giving them a space to philosophize on their own. To what extent a one-time joint philosophizing in a small group is effective in terms of results compared to a regular philosophizing lived in the practice facility is currently difficult to assess in my opinion. Based on the experiences and impressions gained so far, I am definitely positive about a targeted offer on the topic of children’s philosophy.

Kamishibai Narrative Theater

The Kamishibai is a static theater from Japan with optionally lockable double doors. It is divided into the words Kami (paper) and Shibai (theater). The origins go back to Buddhist wandering monks, the so-called Etoki-Hoshi, of the 12th century. They used the scrolls in combination with pictures to make the content easier to convey to people, as many people were illiterate at the time. (see Japan Society & McGowan, 2021)

Especially with Kamishibai, emotions and feelings are a very important aspect. Because the Kamishibai is designed for a common feeling and experience. This is called Kyokan in Japan. The second important aspect is the Japanese “Ma”. In Japan it is seen as a temporal void or pause. Reduced to the Kamishibai, it means that the transitions between the Kamishibai cards offer space for one’s own feelings and emotions. The traditional Kamishibai cards in particular are illustratively cautious and thus offer the Japanese “concept” Ma even while looking at them.

However, it was not used in the form of a public theater until the 20th century, more precisely around the year 1930. The trigger for this were the so-called Gaito Kamishibaiya. These storytellers often traveled from town to town by bike in order to be able to tell their stories to the children and to generate financial income from the sweets they sold. At that time the children were informed about the presence of a Gaito Kamishibaiya by means of so-called Hyóshigi (sound woods) and then came to see him. The bike’s luggage rack served as a mobile tripod to make the wooden frame that contained the picture clearly visible. During the same period, the Kyöiku Kamishibai, used in education and introduced by kindergarten teachers, developed parallel to the Gaito Kamishibai. (see Nishioka, 2019)

At that time, the 38.0 cm x 26.3 cm size was used. However, this format no longer corresponds to the current one. Nowadays the size 29.7 cm x 42.00 cm, also known as DIN A3, is mostly used.

Compared to other picture books, it is noticeable that speaking with a Kamishibai has certain advantages. The picture area is larger than in a classic picture book, so the effect on the children is different. The theater-like presentation with frame, double doors and curtain card is usually inviting and arouses the children’s curiosity. With a Kamishibai, several children can comfortably sit in front of it. However, the greatest advantage of the Kamishibai is the narrator’s sitting position. Since he is sitting behind the Kamishibai, he can constantly interact with the children’s group and thus respond individually to the children’s questions and reactions. You can create your own picture cards and stories with older children.

Disadvantages are in particular the increased space requirement and the purchase of the story box. The institutions must also acquire the content in the appropriate format. A larger group is also required for the Kamishibai, as one or two children lose themselves in front of it. In such cases, it is better to use picture books.

Due to its origin and the worldwide distribution as well as its application, the Kamishibai can be described without a doubt as an intercultural information medium.

Type of presentation (dialogical presentation)

Reading books or stories aloud is a good and easy way to positively influence children’s general language development. The dialogical approach, however, has a prominent position. Because monological storytelling (narrator reads aloud and does not react to the objections and reactions of the children) is much more ineffective in comparison (see Wieler)

Due to the previous analysis and the planned targeted support in the philosophical area (B6 of the education and upbringing matrix of BW), dialogical reading is essential. Targeted questions such as “What do you mean – why is that so?” Or “How do we know how someone is feeling?” Encourages food for thought and a mutual exchange of thoughts and feelings. This would not be achievable with a monological presentation and the objectives planned under the heading Objectives would therefore not be achievable or measurable.

Therefore, dialogic reading is used for this offer. As mentioned above, not only the children’s questions are dealt with here. Rather, the children are encouraged by the narrator and motivated by questions or certain statements such as look! How do you find this or what do you think about it? Before moving on to the next picture card, the narrator can also ask: “What do you think – how does it go from here?”

In principle, there are several options for implementing the application. Due to the objective, however, the following scheme is used:

  1. Kamishibai card is shown to the children
  2. The children are given time to think about the picture
  3. The children are asked about the picture and impulses are given
  4. The text is read out

The aim of using this scheme is not to influence the children’s ideas and fantasies. Because if the story were read out first, the children’s thoughts / ideas would be influenced. This would, see above, make it more difficult to achieve the goals.

Schlinkert is also of this opinion of the targeted dialogical reading in combination with impulses: “He considers questions and impulses in dialogical reading to be elementary components.” (Schlinkert, 2015)

Childhood friendships

Childhood friendships start at one and a half years of age. From this age on, children start making unstable and specific friendships. Children only play with children of the same age from the age of three. In this age range, the word “friend” is usually used for the first time. The term peer group or “peer group” must be clearly distinguished from friendship. Because, by definition, this cannot be used for a specific friendship among children. Friendships are often given in a peer group, but this is more about a group and its social status and cognitive abilities. It would therefore be wrong to call friends a peer group.

Another important point that must not be overlooked is that the friendship of children is an immensely important and at the same time changeable variable for their emotional and cognitive development and should not be underestimated!

Therefore, I will briefly go into the child’s development process in the area of friendship again below.

Child development process in the area of friendship

For friendships among children, certain requirements must be met. In addition to the most well-known factors such as age, gender, interests or origin, factors such as the ability to relate, empathy and self-confidence of the child also play an important role. Even small children behave differently towards their peers compared to objects. From the age of 9 months, a child learns to differentiate between himself and another person. From the age of 24 months, objects are used as a link to establish social contact with another child. When the same children meet regularly, the first relationship patterns can then develop and expand.

Importance of friendships for the child

Much more important than the term friendship is of course the meaning for the respective child. Because friendship in childhood saturates basic psychosocial needs such as closeness, appreciation or exchange. The child also develops his social skills through friendships. It learns to behave appropriately, to respect its fellow human beings and to react to them as well as to communicate successfully, ergo positive social behavior. This also includes verbal and non-verbal communication, mutual support and help as well as the ability to resolve conflicts.

Friendships naturally also have an impact on the cognitive level. Children learn to see other points of view and to compare them with their own. They give each other advice and support. Friends often work co-constructively. This is a learning process in which both children acquire new knowledge by working together. According to Piaget, children can revise their own subjective views through childlike arguments and thus cope with egocentrism. Furthermore, friendships with children have an influence on the moral development and the formation of the child’s identity. (Wieler)

It can therefore be said that friendships among children are immensely important and should be given a high priority in everyday daycare. We as educators are of particular importance here. Because through systematic observations, missing friends can definitely be determined. Here, educators have the influence to motivate children to work together through impulses and tasks and thus to design future free games together.

Picture book analysis of the Kamishibai card set

A picture book analysis can be carried out according to various analysis methods. One possibility for this is a system proposed by Michael Staiger with a total of five differentiated dimensions of a picture book as a narrative medium. These are divided into the areas of narrative dimension, visual dimension, verbal dimension, intermodal dimension as well as the paratextual & material dimension, whereby all dimensions are connected and interact with one another.

This is also made clear by the following graphic:

Dimensions of the picture book analysis according to Michael Steiger.
Dimensions of the picture book analysis according to Steiger.

When doing an analysis, it is important to make sure that it is not just about the text and the image itself. Rather, the “how” is much more important. Because how a text is written or a picture is designed and how they interact with each other has a great influence. Therefore, the attempt is made to analyze the individual dimensions without neglecting the overall context of the work (cf. Staiger, 2014).

Narrative dimension

Synopsis : Emma the snail wanders through various natural areas and gets to know other animals. While curiosity, admiration and interest are in the foreground at the beginning, the emotions change from the fourth picture card. This is where the first doubts and self-questions arise like: “How do you recognize me?” The caterpillar continues its journey of discovery and meets more and more animal species with different talents. In picture seven Emma already feels: “very small and lost” and in picture nine Emma sees herself in her sad state at the reflecting lake, which leads to the question: “And me? – what can I?”. This is followed by crying with picture ten. Only in picture eleven does the snail deal with itself because of questions from the mole Max, because he asks what she has experienced and why she is so sad. There are now more and more listeners, which animal species are that Emma had previously got to know. By telling about their experiences, the pinto becomes happy and now discovers its own talent, which has remained hidden from it until now. This is reinforced by statements from the mole Max in picture twelve when he says: “Thunderstorm, Emma! You are really one of a kind. A great observer! And a great storyteller too! Without you we would only know our little world half as well. ” Encouraged, Emma now decides to continue the voyage of discovery, which is supported by the other animals with: “Oh yes!” In the end, Emma’s heart and shell are jumping for joy.

Breaches of expectations: In picture four, there is a first break in expectations. Here Emma suddenly switches from discovering flora and fauna to questions about her own personality: “How do you recognize me?” In picture eleven, Emma switches from sadness and self-doubt back to positive qualities by asking: “You want to know what I’ve experienced?” At picture twelve there is another breach of expectations. Because when Emma notices that the caterpillar has suddenly flown in as a butterfly, the words about her experiences now only flow out of her.

Storylines: It is a single linear-progressive storyline, as the story only tells about Emma and her contacts with the other characters have no temporal difference such as retrospectives or a preview. The interrupted linearity of the story is missing for a multi-strand plot.

Figures : The different figures all show a correspondence relationship to one another, since all figures are on the same level. At the beginning Emma seems to be different to the other animals, because she is the only one who has no talents, which gives you the feeling of a contrasting relationship for the first time. At the end, however, it turns out that Emma, like the other animals, also has a talent and therefore all characters are unique in their talents and yet the same (all have a talent).

The following characters appear in the story: Emma snail, ants, caterpillar / butterfly, woodpecker, male locust, garden spider, dragonflies, shadow monster, frogs, mole

Space : The story moves over twelve images through different places in nature. The places are all related to one another, since they are all in the great outdoors and cannot be delimited separately. The locations shown are a backdrop. They are not used to characterize characters and are not semantized. There is no continuous transition between the images, i.e. there is no direct approach between the images, as is the case with many other Kamishibai cards, which are inserted laterally as a continuous story.

Time : The story of Emma is told over a period of two days. When the story takes place cannot be deduced from the story.


Narrative perspective / mode : The narrative perspective is authorial. Because the narrator accompanies Emma on her way through the world and reports on her experiences. The narrator doesn’t just know what Emma hears, sees and says. He also knows about Emma’s living conditions (place of residence, preferences, etc.). That is why the personal and neutral narrative perspective is ruled out. There is also an internal focus. The narrator is therefore in the outside perspective.

Time representation : The narrated time is 2 days and the narration time is 30 minutes. Therefore, a so-called time lapse takes place.

Verbal dimension

Choice of words : The story Emma was written in a simple form. There are no foreign words. In my opinion, the key words are: snail; Emma; Emma’s feeler; Snail shell;

Sentence structure : The sentences are kept short and conjunctions are almost completely avoided.

Text design : The total length of the text comprises a total of 27 paragraphs for 13 picture cards. A single paragraph usually does not contain more than a few sentences. The total length is approx. 30 minutes, depending on the reading speed and breaks.

Tempus : present tense

Pictorial dimension

Color : The Kamishibai cards have a stronger light-dark contrast. Sun rays and shadows are also used. The snail Emma has a bright red shell, which stands for energy and strength. The other animals that Emma meets have softer colors and convey expressions such as joy & happiness (butterfly), the mystical (spider & dragonfly) or nature and harmony (caterpillars, frogs). These animals are differentiated from Emma in terms of color.

Space : The Kamishibai cards employ a polyvalent (different) perspective. The images each represent a macro shot of a natural situation (e.g. spider nest or pond with dragonflies). The cards are completely colored. There is therefore no white space whatsoever.

Surface : In pictures 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13 the figures stand out more from the background through a stronger color tone. In pictures 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 11 the figures are more easily separated from the background. Due to the natural drawing, an organic surface shape is used from my point of view.

Texture : The cards have a smooth leaf surface without any noticeable elevations.

Page layout : Individual A3 pages, without frame and without font.

Intermodal dimension

The intermodal dimension mainly relates to the text-image relationship in picture books, so that, from my point of view, the analysis of the intermodal dimension is difficult or even impossible with Kamishibai cards.

Paratextual & Material Dimension

Title : Emma – Without you the world would only be half as beautiful!

Author : Heidi Leenen

Illustrator : Lisa Hänsch, Ramona Wultschner

Published by Don Bosco Medien GmbH

Place of publication : Munich

Release date : 2020

Number of pages: 13 + 1 bonus page

Price : € 10.99 – € 16.00, can be ordered in stationary bookshops and online

EAN / ISBN : 4260 17951 6924

Form & Format:

The Kamishibai cards are printed in color on one side and have a white back. The paper is 300g thick and smooth. The entire text of the story of the picture book is on the back of the cover picture card. The cards are printed without borders and the edges are not rounded. As usual with Kamishibai, the picture cards are printed in landscape format and there is no cover or spine. The card set is therefore loose and not connected to one another.

Methodical and didactic planning


Content / sub-stepsImpulses, questionsFine targets / MDP
The first face card is drawn. They wait a moment so that the children can think about the picture and then questions are asked of the children. Only now is the story read out to the picture card.Impulse for target 1/2: Do you have an idea where Emma is going next?Principle of exercise
Point 7 is repeated according to the following cards. The cards for which special / planned impulses are set are now listed below.Impulse for target 3/4: Do you also have friends?Fine target 1/2
The last card (No. 12) is turned over as in point 6 and you wait a moment. Now questions are asked of the children and impulses are given.Impulse for target 3/4: How do you recognize a friend?Fine target 3/4
Impulse for target 3/4: Are Emma’s friends just like your friends?Fine target 5
Introductory phase of the offer


Content / sub-stepsImpulses, questionsFine targets / MDP
The first face card is drawn. They wait a moment so that the children can think about the picture and then questions are asked of the children. Only now is the story read out to the picture card.The last card (No. 12) is turned over as in point 6 and you wait a moment. Now questions are asked of the children and impulses are given.Principle of exercise
Point 7 is repeated according to the following cards. The cards for which special / planned impulses are set are now listed below.Impulse for target 3/4: Do you also have friends?Fine target 1/2
The last card (No. 12) is turned over as in point 6 and you wait a moment. Now questions are asked of the children and impulses are given.Impulse for target 3/4: How do you recognize a friend?Fine target 3/4
Impulse for target 3/4: Are Emma’s friends just like your friends?Fine target 5
Main phase of the offer

Final phase

Content / sub-stepsImpulses, questionsFine targets / MDP
Towards the end of the last card, the Kamishibai remains open to avoid distraction and “reorientation” of the children. Reference is made to the story again and questions are asked about it.Question: Did you like the story with Emma?Principle of activity
The children’s statements are repeated.Question: Do you have an idea where Emma is going now?Fine target 1/2
The children are commended for their workImpulse: I thought your ideas were really great. Now we have found many new ways for Emma together.Principle of exercise
Together we go back upstairs to the group room with the children. The offer is hereby ended.Principle of the exercise for fine target 1/2

Problem anticipation

A child cannot find rest

At the beginning of the offer, it is waited until all children sit calmly and tense. As a support, the Hyóshigi (sound sticks) are hit at the beginning, which draws the children’s attention to the Kamishibai. If a child is repeatedly unable to rest while the offer is being carried out, it will be increasingly involved in the story through impulses.

A child wants to disrupt the performance

If a child disturbs the performance or the offer several times, they can alternatively take a seat at the edge of the room and wait there until the end of the offer.

A child is ill and does not participate

It is possible that a child is sick on the day of the offer and is absent. In this case, another child can move up, whereby the group constellation to be observed must be taken into account when making the selection. Only a child of a similar character and level of cognitive development should be considered.

A child does not comment

If a child is afraid of the topic or does not comment on it, the child is put on hold for the time being and the question or the impulse is passed on to another child. After other children have expressed themselves, reference is made again to the actually planned child and the question / impulse is asked differently. This tries to get the child to participate anyway. If the child still does not want to participate, they are still welcome to listen. If the child reacts physically (visible interest or trains of thought), the child is asked again, but the level of difficulty is lowered if a new question is asked.

It was raining on the day of the offer

If it rains heavily on the day of the offer, the other children cannot use the outdoor area. In this case, the offer must be moved to one of the lower rooms. Although this is not ideal in terms of lighting and space, the offer can still take place in this way.

The Kamishibai falls over

Don Bosco’s Kamishibai is very unstable even with the side doors open. Please note that the doors must always be fully open and that the Kamishibai stands cleanly on the surface. Should it fall over anyway, you can build the situation into the story and continue as planned after setting it up again.

Preparatory activities

Spatial planning

The reading area was chosen as the room because it has the necessary space on the one hand and the children can sit comfortably on a carpet on the other. Another important reason is that the room is flooded with light. The use of the room is only possible if the weather conditions are acceptable, as the other children have to use the outside area during the offer time. The alternative in this case would be a change of room, see problem anticipation.

Space planning for the offer
Room planning in 2D

Material and media list

  • Kamishibai by Don Bosco (A3)
  • Kamishibai cards Emma
  • Stool for the Kamishibai
  • Text cards of history
  • Hyóshigi


  1. Figure A: Schematic representation of the targeted offer
  2. Figure B: Inseparable connection between the individual dimensions
  3. Figure C: Spatial planning with educator, children and teacher


  1. Baden-Württemberg, M. f. KJ u.s. (2016). Orientation plan. For education and upbringing in kindergartens in Baden-Württemberg and other day-care centers (2nd edition). Freiburg: Herder.
  2. Heinrich, C., Berner-Zumpf, D. & Teichert, M. (Eds.). (2020). “All cups fly up!” A Critique of Children’s Philosophy (Counterstatement. Contributions to Philosophy and Education, Vol. 1). Weinheim: Beltz; Beltz Juventa.
  3. Huppertz, N. & Barleben, M. (2016). Joy in philosophizing. Didactic units for kindergarten and elementary school (educational science, volume 79). Berlin, Münster: LIT.
  4. Japan Society & McGowan, TM (2021). About Japan: A Teacher’s Resource. The Many Faces of Kamishibai (Japanese Paper Theater) – Past, Present, and Future. Accessed on 07/30/2021. Retrieved from
  5. Nishioka, A. (2019 September 1). One Hundred Years of Kamishibai. Development and Popularity of the Paper Theater, Zurich. Accessed on 07/30/2021. Available at:
  6. Schlinkert, H. (, ed.). (2015). On the method of viewing picture books. Accessed on 07/30/2021. Available at:
  7. Staiger, M. (2014). Picture books. Theory (Vol. 1). German didactics for the primary level. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren. Available at: Researchgate
  8. Wieler, P .. Child friendship and its meaning – do children need other children?

citation suggestion

Götz, S. (2021). Targeted offer – philosophizing about friendships. Dialogic lectures and picture book analysis. Accessed 11/17/2021. Available at:

Sebastian Götz
Sebastian Götz
"Ich lerne für den besten Job der Welt und möchte euch hier auf Krippenzeit daran teilhaben lassen."
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