Targeted offer – philosophizing about friendships

In this article you will receive a detailed planning of a targeted offer in the daycare center with the topic philosophizing about friendships using dialogical recitation. The child theme is friendships. Learn more about the Kamishibai or about the picture book analysis of the story Emma – without you the world would only be half as beautiful.

This planning still lacks the first section (analysis) with the child description for completion. Here you must provide information about the child and describe the corresponding developmental areas (emotional-social, fine & gross motor, cognitive and the linguistic area). The description of the child’s interests and theme conclude the area of analysis of a targeted offer. This is now followed by the Goals section. I hope you enjoy reading it.


Naming the fields of education and development

During the targeted offer, the educational and developmental fields of “meaning, values and religion“, thinking, “feeling and compassion” as well as language are touched upon. Due to the planned type of offer (philosophizing and friendship), however, the areas of “meaning, values and religion” and “thinking” are mainly and increasingly addressed.

These educational and developmental areas of the Baden-Württemberg Orientation Plan are derived from the educational areas of language & communication (“communicating in conversations and expressing their feelings, opinions, thoughts, experiences, etc.”) and social, cultural and intercultural education (“entering into social interaction processes and experiencing other people’s opinions and ideas”).

The educational and developmental field of meaning, values and religion is promoted through joint philosophizing in the group. The children are given impulses to be able to philosophize about possible developments in the story. Through this, the children discover that there can be no final answers to some questions and that the other children have different ideas about the progress of the story. Likewise, the topic of the child (friendship) is talked about on a philosophical level and questions or impulses are set accordingly. This area is found in the Orientation Plan under the goal: “Can find understanding partners in their philosophizing and/or theologizing about life and the world.” (Baden-Württemberg, 2016, p. 167)

In the educational and developmental area of thinking, the children expand their knowledge through the targeted offerings. There is also a strong cognitive demand, because the children have to think about the progress of the story and think about the theme of friendship. In the educational and developmental field of thinking, there is also the goal that children enjoy thinking together. Reference to philosophizing is also made in this developmental field, including the goal: “ask questions of themselves and their environment, including philosophical and religious questions, and seek answers. (cf. Baden-Württemberg, 2016, p. 148)

Rough targets

  1. The children deal creatively with the pictures of the medium (Kamishibai cards).
  2. The children expand their knowledge on the topic of friendship.
  3. The children get to know other children as understanding partners.

Detailed targets

  1. The children express their ideas for continuing the story.
  2. The children compare their ideas about the rest of the story.
  3. The children explain what friends are for them.
  4. The children compare Emma’s friendships with their own.
  5. The children practice creative thinking


Justification of the offer

Schematic planning for the targeted offer in the daycare center.

Based on K’s interests and topic, I think the planned offer is on target. K. has a strong imagination and is interested in adventure. Here is suitable the story of Emma, who explores the world and adventures in nature and meets new animals. Based on the observations, K. is more often in conflict with other children and she finds it difficult to find a common consensus during activities in free play.

She expressed for a long time that she has no friends and no one wants to play with her. Here I see friendships as a childlike theme of K. The story Emma is also suitable for this, as she learns that the other animals are her friends and that everyone can reach a goal together.

K. is not particularly interested in looking at books at the moment. She finds it boring and therefore quickly puts your interest back on other things. By using the kamishibai, a different atmosphere can be built so that K. can be reached in a different way compared to using a picture book. As a result, K. is more likely to achieve the planned goals.

The common philosophizing in the group should take up the child’s topic and carry it into the group. Questions such as “Is that true?”, “Why?” or “Could it be different?” are intended to get the children thinking and philosophizing.

The goals of the offer are thus conveyed through two levels, which the adjacent graphic again clearly illustrates.

So far, I have not gained any personal experience with the planned offer in the form of joint philosophizing. I am familiar with the use of kamishibai through a performed offering at my former practice facility in the nursery.

Group selection

Rationale for the group constellation

The group was put together based on overlapping interests. Likewise, care was taken to ensure that the characters of the group were heterogeneous. The children do not have any conflicts with K. in everyday life at the daycare center (free play), so that “everyday conflicts” can be avoided in the targeted offer. This can also create new connections between K. and the other children, which may lead to new play partners in the medium term.

When selecting the group, it was also important to ensure that the children had a homogeneous level of cognitive development, so that individual children would not be overtaxed or bored, which could lead to a disruption of the program.

Subject analysis

Philosophizing with kindergarten children

Philosophizing with children in kindergarten is exciting territory. Because children have a lot of imagination and creativity. Likewise, children think and reason differently compared to us adults. This makes it possible to quickly identify new ways of looking at and thinking about a particular topic. Furthermore, the Baden-Württemberg orientation plan for education and upbringing clearly instructs institutions to also address the topic of philosophizing with children. This is recorded in education and development field 6: Meaning, values and religion. Here, the goal is clearly formulated: “Children can find understanding partners in their philosophizing and / or theologizing about life and the world and experience different ways of asking for meaning and living values and communicate about it. (cf. Baden-Württemberg, 2016, pp. 165-168)

Nevertheless, it is necessary to touch briefly on the subject of children’s philosophy. For there are arguments in professional circles for as well as against philosophizing with children. These will now be explained and presented in more detail to provide an up-to-date overview of the scientific discussion and development on this topic. Ultimately, an approach for the planned offer can be derived from this.

Arguments for philosophizing

Probably the most important argument for philosophizing with children is the requirement of the state of Baden-Württemberg for this. This is because the orientation plan was drawn up in accordance with § 9 para. 2 of the KitaG and serves the promotion mandate according to §22 SGB VIII. Nevertheless, it is the responsibility of the provider how the goals are achieved. There is therefore a great deal of latitude for the institution in how the topic of philosophizing is approached with children (cf. Baden-Württemberg, 2016, p. 98).

Philosophizing with children can only be of an offer character and must be carried out in a suitable atmosphere without pressure. The way of philosophizing also depends on the stage of development of the respective children. It is important for the children to have a person with whom they feel comfortable and with whom they can reflect and share together. Children have a right to have their philosophical questions answered. This can promote children’s imagination, creativity, knowledge, values, language, thinking, and reasoning, among other things (cf. Huppertz & Barleben, 2016, pp. 7-23). As Huppertz and Barleben put it, “Childhood today commands philosophizing” (Huppertz & Barleben, 2016, p. 17).

Richard. F. Kitchener believes that children under the age of 10 also philosophize, albeit rather simplistically. Rather, one must see this as a kind of preliminary phase of the actual later philosophizing. In contrast to later, abstract philosophizing, simple concrete philosophizing rather takes place in this phase (cf. Heinrich, Berner-Zumpf & Teichert, 2020, p. 74).

Arguments against philosophizing

Piaget conducted research on children’s thinking and his findings lead to the conclusion that children cannot philosophize because children cannot analyze, systematize, or define. Children have no separation between the different levels (self<>world) and they are not aware of your subjectivity. Philosophizing with children thus attacks both scientific philosophy and the child itself (cf. Heinrich et al., 2020, pp. 110-111). For by classifying children as scientists and philosophers, we risk, on the one hand, undermining independent free play and stressing children’s developmental stages with the risk of making excessive demands on children.

Therefore, there are good reasons to be skeptical when children are titled or promoted in this regard (cf. Heinrich et al., 2020, pp. 86-88). Likewise, in a 1989 essay, Richard F. Kitchener defended Piaget’s statements, which were contrasted and challenged on the aforementioned topic by Matthew Lipmann and Gareth B. Matthews with a different view (see Heinrich et al., 2020, p. 13).

Personal conclusion on the subject of children’s philosophy

In my view, children’s philosophy represents an important contribution to the promotion of early childhood and should not be neglected. Scientifically controversial is the question whether children can really philosophize. However, for me, this is not the core element of the children’s philosophy. Because it should be undisputed that children ask questions and have their own trains of thought. Therefore, I see the field of children’s philosophy as a rather broad spectrum, each of which has extremes in both directions that must be avoided. Furthermore, I see philosophizing with an adult as a necessary prerequisite, because depending on the topic and the child’s experience, a complex of topics can very quickly cause anxiety and uncertainty in the child. Philosophizing should therefore be led by an adult person.

Ultimately, the goal is not to teach children how to philosophize, but rather to give them a space to philosophize on their own. From my point of view, it is currently difficult to weigh up to what extent a one-time philosophizing together in a small group is effective in terms of results in comparison to a regular philosophizing lived in the practice institution. From the experiences and impressions gained so far, however, I am quite positive about a targeted offer on the topic of children’s philosophy.

Storytelling theater Kamishibai

The Kamishibai is a static theater originating in Japan with optional locking hinged doors. It is divided into the words kami (paper) as well as shibai (theater). The origins go back to Buddhist wandering monks, the so-called Etoki-Hoshi, of the 12th century. These used the scrolls in combination with pictures to make the content more relatable to the people, as many people were illiterate at the time. (cf. Japan Society & McGowan, 2021).

Especially with kamishibai, emotions and feelings are a very important aspect. This is because kamishibai is designed to be felt and experienced together. This is called Kyo- kan in Japan. The second important point of view is the Japanese “Ma”. It is seen in Japan as a temporal void or pause. Reduced to kamishibai, it means that the transitions between the kamishibai cards provide a space for the children’s own feelings and emotions. Especially the traditional Kamishibai cards are illustratively restrained and thus offer the Japanese “concept” Ma even during the viewing.

However, it was not used in the form of a theater performed in public until the 20th century, more precisely around 1930. This was triggered by the so-called Gaito Kamishibaiya. These storytellers often traveled from town to town on bicycles to tell their stories to children and generate financial income from the candy they sold. At that time, the children were informed of the presence of a Gaito Kamishibaiya by means of so-called Hyóshigi (sounding woods) and thereupon found themselves at his place. Here, the luggage rack of the bicycle served as a mobile tripod to make the wooden frame, which contained the image, clearly visible. In the same period, parallel to the Gaito Kamishibai, the Kyöiku Kamishibai, used in education and introduced by kindergarten teachers, developed. (cf. Nishioka, 2019)

At that time, the size 38.0 cm x 26.3 cm was used. However, this format no longer corresponds to today’s. Nowadays, the most commonly used size is 29.7 cm x 42.00 cm, also known as DIN A3.

In comparison with other picture books, it is noticeable that reciting with a kamishibai has certain advantages. The picture area is a larger than in a classic picture book, so the effect on children is different. Likewise, the theater-like presentation with frame, double doors and curtain card is usually inviting and arouses children’s curiosity. With a kamishibai, several children can sit comfortably in front of it. However, the biggest advantage of the kamishibai is the sitting position of the narrator. Since he sits behind the kamishibai, he can constantly interact with the group of children and thus respond individually to the children’s questions and reactions. With older children can create their own picture cards and stories.

Disadvantages are especially the increased space requirements and the purchase of the story box. Facilities must also acquire the content in the appropriate format. Likewise, a larger group is needed for the kamishibai, as one or two children get lost in front of it. In such cases, recourse to picture books is preferable.

Due to its origin and worldwide distribution as well as its application, the Kamishibai can undoubtedly be called an intercultural information medium.

Type of presentation (dialogical presentation)

Reading books or stories aloud is a good and simple way to positively influence children’s overall language development. However, the dialogical approach has a prominent position. Because monologic storytelling (narrator reads aloud and does not respond to children’s objections and reactions) is much more ineffective in comparison (cf. Wieler)

Based on the previous analysis and the planned targeted support in the philosophical area (B6 of BW’s education matrix), dialogical reading aloud is indispensable. Because by asking specific questions like “What do you think – why is it like that?” or “How can we tell how someone is feeling?” you encourage food for thought as well as sharing your own thoughts and feelings. This would not be achievable with a monologue presentation and the objective planned under the heading of objectives would therefore not be attainable or measurable.

Therefore, dialogical reading aloud is used in this offer. Here, not only are the children’s questions answered, as mentioned above. Rather, the children are prompted and motivated by the narrator through questions or certain statements such as “Look at this,” “What do you think of this,” or “What do you think about this? Before moving on to the next picture card, the narrator can also ask, “What do you think – what happens next?”

In principle, there are several options for implementing the application. However, due to the objective, the following scheme is applied:

  1. Kamishibai card is shown to the children
  2. The children are given time to think about the picture
  3. The children are asked about the picture and impulses are given
  4. The text is read aloud

The aim of using this scheme is not to influence children’s ideas and fantasies. Because if the story was read first, the children would be influenced in their thoughts/imaginations. This would, see above, make it more difficult to achieve the objectives.

Schlinkert also shares this opinion of targeted dialogic reading aloud in combination with stimuli: “He considers questions and stimuli to be elementary components of dialogic reading aloud.” (Schlinkert, 2015)

Childhood friendships

Childhood friendships begin as early as one and a half years of age. From this age, children establish unstable and specific friendships. It is only from the age of three that children play predominantly with children of the same age. This age range is also usually the first time the word “friend” is mentioned. To be clearly distinguished from friendship is the word peer group or “peer group”. For this, by definition, cannot be applied to a specific friendship among children. Friendships are often given in a peer group, yet this is more about a group and their social status as well as their cognitive abilities. It would therefore be wrong to call friends a peer group.

Another important point that should not be overlooked is that children’s friendship is an immensely important and at the same time variable variable for their emotional as well as cognitive development and should not be underestimated!

Therefore, in the following I will again briefly discuss the child development process in the area of friendship.

Child development process in the field of friendship

Certain conditions must be met for friendships among children. In addition to the usually known factors such as age, gender, interests or the origin, the factors such as relationship skills, empathy and self-confidence of the child also play an important role. Even young children behave differently towards their peers compared to objects. From the age of 9 months, a child learns to differentiate between himself and another person. From the age of 24 months, objects are used as a link to establish social contact with another child. With regular meetings of the same children, initial relationship patterns can then develop and expand.

Importance of friendships for the child

Of course, much more important than the term friendship is its meaning for the particular child. This is because a childhood friendship satiates basic psychosocial needs such as closeness, appreciation or sharing. The child also develops social skills through friendships. It learns to behave appropriately, to respect and respond to those around it, and to communicate successfully, ergo to use positive social behaviors. This also includes verbal as well as non-verbal communication, mutual support and assistance, and conflict resolution skills.

But friendships also have an influence on the cognitive level, of course. Children learn to see other points of view and compare them with their own. They give each other advice and support. Friends often work co-constructively. This is a learning process in which both children acquire new knowledge through collaboration. According to Piaget, children are able to revise their own subjective views through childlike confrontations and thus overcome egocentrism. Furthermore, children’s friendships influence the moral development as well as the identity formation of the child. (Wieler)

It can therefore be stated that friendships among children are immensely important and should be given a high priority in everyday daycare. We educators have a special role to play here. This is because missing friends can certainly be detected through systematic observations. Here, educators have the influence to encourage children to work together through stimuli and tasks, thus shaping future shared free play.

Picture book analysis of the Kamishibai card set

A picture book analysis can be performed according to different analysis methods. One possibility for this is a system proposed by Michael Staiger with a total of five differentiated dimensions of a picture book as a narrative medium. These are divided into the Narrative Dimension, Figurative Dimension, Verbal Dimension, Intermodal Dimension, and the Paratextual & Material Dimension, with all dimensions interconnected and interacting with each other.

This is also illustrated by the following graphic:

Dimensions of the picture book analysis according to Staiger
Dimensions of the picture book analysis according to Staiger

In an analysis, it is important to pay attention to the fact that it is not only the text and the image itself that matter. Rather, the “how” is of much greater importance. Because how a text is written or an image is designed and these interact with each other has a great influence. Therefore, the analysis of the individual dimensions is attempted without disregarding the overall context of the work (cf. Staiger, 2014).

Narrative dimension

Storyline: Emma the snail wanders through different natural areas and gets to know other animals. While curiosity, admiration and interest are in the foreground at the beginning, the emotions change from the fourth picture card on. This is where the first doubts and self-questions arise, such as, “And how will I be recognized?” The caterpillar continues its journey of discovery and meets more and more species of animals with different talents. In picture seven Emma already feels: “quite small and lost” and in picture nine Emma sees herself at the reflecting lake in her sad condition, which leads to the question: “and me? – what can I do?”. This is followed by a cry with image ten. Only in picture eleven does the snail deal with itself due to questions from the mole Max, since he asks what it has experienced and why it is so sad. More and more listeners are now joining in, which are species that Emma had met before. By telling about her experiences, the pinto becomes happy and now discovers her own talent, which was previously hidden from her. This is reinforced by statements from the mole Max in picture twelve, saying, “Golly, Emma! You really are one of a kind. A great observer! And a great storyteller to boot! Without you, we would only know our little world half as well.” Encouraged, Emma now decides to continue the voyage of discovery, which is supported by the other animals with an: “Ouch! In the end, Emma’s heart and snail shell leaps for joy.

Expectation breaks: A first expectation break takes place at image four. Here Emma suddenly switches from discovering flora and fauna to questions about her own personality: ” and how do you recognize me?” At frame eleven, Emma shifts from sadness and self-doubt back to positivity by asking, “You want to know everything I’ve been through?” In image twelve, another break in expectations takes place. Because when Emma realizes that the caterpillar suddenly flies in as a butterfly, the words about her experiences now just flow out of her.

Storylines: It is a single linear-progressive storyline, as the story tells only about Emma and the contacts of her with the other characters have no temporal difference such as flashbacks or a preview. Thus, the interrupted linearity of the story is missing for a multi-strand plot.

Figures: The different figures all have a correspondence relation to each other, because all figures are on the same level. At the beginning, Emma does give the impression of being different compared to the other animals, as she is probably the only one without any talents, which gives you the feeling of a contrast relationship for the first time. By the end, however, it becomes apparent that Emma, like the other animals, also has a talent, and thus all the characters are unique in their talents and yet the same (all have a talent).

The following characters appear in the story: Snail Emma, ants, caterpillar/butterfly, woodpecker, male grasshopper, cross spider, dragonflies, shadow monster, frogs, mole.

Space: The story moves through twelve images through different places of nature. The places are all in relation to each other, as they are all in the open air and cannot be delineated separately. The locations depicted are a backdrop. They are not used for characterization of figures and are not semanticized. There is no continuous transition of the pictures, i.e. no direct approach of the pictures to each other, as with some other Kamishibai cards, which are inserted laterally as a continuous story.

Time: Emma’s story is told over a total time span of two days. When the story takes place cannot be deduced from the story.


Narrative perspective/mode: The narrative perspective is authorial. For the narrator accompanies Emma on her way through the world and reports on her experiences. The narrator not only knows what Emma hears, sees and says. He also knows about Emma’s circumstances (place of residence, preferences, etc.). Therefore, the personal and neutral narrative perspective is ruled out. Likewise, there is an internal focalization. Accordingly, the narrator is in the external perspective.

Time representation: The narrated time covers 2 days and the narration time is 30 minutes. Therefore, a so-called time lapse takes place.


Word choice: The story Emma was written in simple form. There are no foreign words. Key words from my point of view are the following: Snail; Emma; Emma’s antennae; snail shell;

Sentence structure: Sentences are kept short and conjunctions are almost completely avoided.

Text design: The total length of the text includes a total of 27 paragraphs with 13 picture cards. A single paragraph usually comprises no more than a few sentences. Total length is approximately 30 minutes, depending on reading pace and breaks.

Tense: Present tense


Color: The Kamishibai cards have a stronger light-dark contrast. Sun rays and shade are also used. Snail Emma has a strong red snail shell, which stands for energy and power. The other animals Emma encounters have softer colors and convey expressions like joy & happiness (butterfly), the mystical (spider & dragonfly) or nature and harmony (caterpillar, frogs). Color-wise, these animals are distinct from Emma.

Space: the Kamishibai cards apply a polyvalent (different) perspective. The images each represent a macro shot of a natural situation (e.g. spider’s nest or pond with dragonflies). The cards are completely colored. There is therefore no white space at all.

Area: The figures in images 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13 stand out more from the background with a stronger color tone. In images 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 11, there is a lighter separation of the figures from the background. Due to the natural drawing, an organic surface form is applied from my point of view.

Texture: The cards have a smooth sheet surface without tactile bumps.

Page layout: Single A3 pages, without frame and without font.


The intermodal dimension mainly refers to the text-image relationship in picture books, so from my point of view, the analysis of the intermodal dimension is difficult if not impossible to perform with Kamishibai cards.


Title: Emma – Without you the world would be only half as beautiful!

Author: Heidi Leenen

Illustrator: Lisa Hänsch, Ramona Wultschner

Publisher: Don Bosco Medien GmbH

Place of publication: Munich

Publication date: 2020

Page count: 13 + 1 bonus page

Price: 10,99€ – 16,00€, orderable in stationary bookstores and web

EAN/ISBN: 4260 17951 6924

Form & Format:

The Kamishibai cards are printed on one side in color and have a white back. The paper is 300g thick and smooth. The text of the picture book story is in full on the back of the cover picture card. The cards are printed without edges and the edges are not rounded. The picture cards are printed in landscape format, as is usual with Kamishibai, and there is no cover or spine. Thus, the card set is loose and not connected to each other.

Methodical-didactical planning


Content / partial stepsImpulses, questionsDetailed targets / MDP
The first picture card is drawn. A moment is waited for the children to think about the picture and then questions are asked of the children. Only now is the story about the picture card read aloud.Impulse for Goal 1/2: Do you have any idea where Emma will go from here?Principle of the exercise
The point 7 is repeated according to the following cards. The following are now the cards where special/planned impulses are set.Impulse for Goal 3/4: Do you have friends?Fine target 1 / 2
The last card (No. 12) is turned face up as in point 6 and a moment is waited. Now questions are asked to the children and impulses are given.Impulse for Detailed Goal 3/4: How can you recognize a friend?Fine target 3 / 4
Impulse for Detailed Goal 3/4: Are Emma’s friends just like your friends?Fine target 5
Introductory phase of the offer

Main part

Content / partial stepsImpulses, questionsDetailed targets / MDP
The first picture card is drawn. A moment is waited for the children to think about the picture and then questions are asked of the children. Only now is the story about the picture card read aloud.The last card (No. 12) is turned face up as in point 6 and a moment is waited. Now questions are asked to the children and impulses are given.Principle of the exercise
The point 7 is repeated according to the following cards. The following are now the cards where special/planned impulses are set.Impulse for Goal 3/4: Do you have friends?Fine target 1 / 2
The last card (No. 12) is turned face up as in point 6 and a moment is waited. Now questions are asked to the children and impulses are given.Impulse for Detailed Goal 3/4: How can you recognize a friend?Fine target 3 / 4
Impulse for Detailed Goal 3/4: Are Emma’s friends just like your friends?Fine target 5
Main phase of the offer

Closing phase

Content / partial stepsImpulses, questionsDetailed targets / MDP
Towards the end of the last card, the kamishibai remains open to avoid distracting and “reorienting” the children. Reference is made again to the story and questions are asked about it.Question: Did you like the story with Emma?Activity principle
The children’s statements are repeated.Question: Do you have any idea where Emma is going now?Fine target 1 / 2
The children are praised for cooperationImpulse: I really loved your ideas. Now together we have found many new ways for Emma.Principle of the exercise
Together we go back upstairs with the children to the group room. The offer is hereby terminated.Principle of the exercise for detailed objective 1 / 2
Final stage of the offer

Problem anticipation

A child finds no peace

With the beginning of the offer is waited until all children sit quietly and tensely. To support this, the children start by striking the hyóshigi (sounding woods), which draws their attention to the kamishibai. If a child repeatedly fails to find peace during the offer, he or she is increasingly included in the story through impulses.

A child wants to disrupt the performance

If a child repeatedly disrupts the performance or offering, he or she may alternatively sit at the edge of the room and wait there until the offering ends.

A child is ill and does not participate

It may happen that a child is ill on the day of the offer and is absent. In this case, another child can move up, whereby attention must be paid to the group constellation to be considered when making the selection. Only a child of similar character and cognitive developmental level should be considered.

A child does not express

If a child is afraid of the topic or does not speak up, then the child is put on hold for now and the question or impulse is passed to another child. After other children have expressed themselves, reference is made again to the child who was actually planned and the question/impulse is posed differently. This is an attempt to get the child to participate anyway. If the child still does not want to participate, he or she is welcome to continue listening. If the child responds physically (visible interest or thought processes), he or she is asked again, but here the difficulty level is lowered with a new question.

It rains on the day of the offer

If it rains heavily on the day of the offer, the other children will not be able to use the outdoor area. In this case, the offer must be moved to one of the lower rooms. Although this is not ideal in terms of light and space, the offer can still take place.

The kamishibai falls over

The Don Bosco Kamishibai is very unstable even with the side doors open. Here it is important to note that the doors must always be fully open and the kamishibai stands up neatly on the base. If it still falls over, you can include the situation in the story and continue as planned after setting it up again.

Preparatory activities

Spatial planning

The reading area was chosen as the room because on the one hand there is the necessary space and on the other hand the children can sit comfortably on a carpet. Another important reason is that the room is flooded with light. However, the use of the room goes only in acceptable weather conditions, because the other children have to use the outdoor area during the offer time. The alternative in this case would be to change rooms, see Problem Anticipation.

Space planning for the targeted offer
Space planning for the targeted offer

Material and media list

  • Kamishibai from Don Bosco (A3)
  • Kamishibai cards Emma
  • Stool for the Kamishibai
  • History text cards
  • Hyóshigi


  1. Figure A: Schematic representation of the targeted offer
  2. Figure B: Inseparable connection of the individual dimensions
  3. Figure C: Room planning with educator, children and teacher


  1. Baden-Wuerttemberg, M. f. K. J. u. S. (2016). Orientation Plan. For education and upbringing in Baden-Württemberg kindergartens and other daycare facilities (2nd ed.). Freiburg: Herder.
  2. Heinrich, C., Berner-Zumpf, D. & Teichert, M. (Eds.). (2020). “All cups fly high!”. A critique of children’s philosophy (Counterstatement. Contributions to philosophy and education, Vol. 1). Weinheim: Beltz; Beltz Juventa.
  3. Huppertz, N. & Barleben, M. (2016). The joy of philosophizing. Didactic Units for Kindergarten and Elementary School (Educational Science, Vol. 79). Berlin, Münster: LIT.
  4. Japan Society & McGowan, T. M. (2021). About Japan: A Teacher’s Resource. The Many Faces of Kamishibai (Japanese Paper Theater) – Past, Present, and Future. Accessed 07/30/2021. Retrieved from
  5. Nishioka, A. (2019, September 1). One Hundred Years of Kamishibai. Development and Popularity of the Paper Theater, Zurich. Accessed 07/30/2021. Available at:
  6. Schlinkert, H. (, ed.). (2015). On the methodology of picture book viewing. Accessed 07/30/2021. Available at:
  7. Staiger, M. (2014). Picture books. Theory (vol. 1). German didactics for the primary level. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren. Available at: Researchgate
  8. Wieler, P.. Children’s friendship and its meaning – Do children need other children?

Suggested Citation

Götz, S. (2021). Targeted offer – philosophizing about friendships. Dialogical recitation and picture book analysis. Accessed 11/17/2021. Available at:

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